Softness and body compliance are salient features often exploited by biological systems, which tend to seek simplicity and show reduced complexity in their interactions with their environment
Conventional, rigid-bodied robots are used extensively in manufacturing and can be specifically programmed to perform a single task efficiently, but often with limited adaptability.
They (Fig. 1) have the potential to exhibit unprecedented adaptation, sensitivity and agility. Soft robots promise to be able to bend and twist with high curvatures and thus can be used in confined spaces7 ; to deform their bodies in a continuous way and thus achieve motions that emulate biology
We define soft robots as systems that are capable of autonomous behaviour, and that are primarily composed of materials with moduli in the range of that of soft biological materials.
Instead of designing the stiffness of robotic systems by tuning their constituent materials, another line of soft-robotics research has sought to control material stiffness on the fly
The compliance and morphology of soft robots precludes the use of many conventional sensors including encoders, metal or semiconductor strain gauges, or inertial measurement units (IMUs).
compressors are similar to generators as they convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, and compressed gas cylinders are similar to capacitors as they store a pressurized fluid in a certain volume to be discharged when required.
the movements of soft bodies cannot be confined to planar motions. Soft materials are elastic and can bend, twist, stretch, compress, buckle, wrinkle and so on. Such motion can be viewed as offering an infinite number of degrees of freedom,
…use of compliance when the robot interacts with its environment.
Soft systems have a natural advantage over rigid robots in grasping and manipulating unknown objects because the compliance of soft grippers allows them to adapt to a variety of objects with simple control schemes.